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Fighting viruses, nanomaterials?

Edit: Ccdanni 2020-02-20 Mobile

  By 24:00 on February 3, 2020, a total of 20,623 confirmed cases of new coronavirus and 427 deaths were found worldwide. Among them, there were 20,471 confirmed cases and 426 deaths (including 6,384 confirmed cases and 313 deaths) in Wuhan (including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions).

  The new coronavirus found in Wuhan this time belongs to the "coronavirus" family. Prior to this, certain coronaviruses were known to cause epidemics of more severe infectious diseases such as the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). Common symptoms of human infection with coronavirus include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and dyspnea. In more severe cases, infection can lead to viral pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiple organ failure, and even death.

  Coronavirus is transmitted mainly by droplets when coughing or sneezing. Given this mode of transmission, most cases are related to close contact with other infected persons. At present, there is no specific treatment for the diseases caused by the new coronavirus, and no vaccine is available. Therefore, controlling the source of infection and cutting off the transmission route are the main means to prevent and block its spread.

  

  Fighting viruses, what is nanotechnology?

  Gold nanoparticles

  Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have become an ideal delivery system for drug transport and release in different types of cell systems. This ideal delivery performance is closely related to many properties of gold nanoparticles.

  (1) In gold nanoparticles, the gold core is completely natural, non-toxic and biocompatible, which provides an ideal starting point for carrier construction;

  (2) Gold nanoparticles have a wide range of sizes (1-150nm), which can be easily dispersed and sized, and size and dispersibility are key factors in drug delivery systems; (3) Gold nanoparticles have size and morphology Dependent photoelectric effect

  (4) Gold nanoparticles have a higher surface area and are more conducive to drug loading;

  (5) The highly tunable and multivalent surface structure of gold nanoparticles provides multiple possibilities for multiple therapeutic drugs or biological macromolecules to be covalently or covalently coupled to the particle surface.

  Silver nanomaterial

  Among many antimicrobial materials, nano-silver is the most thorough and has already been used in medical applications. The antibacterial properties of silver have been known in ancient times. Metal silver, silver nitrate and silver sulfadiazine cups were used for the treatment of burn wounds and the control of bacterial diseases such as dentistry.

  Among many metals and their oxide nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles have the best antimicrobial effect and are the most widely studied. Many researchers have confirmed that silver nanoparticles can effectively inhibit bacteria, viruses, and fungi, especially those resistant to antibiotics.

  Different sizes of silver nanoparticles have different antibacterial effects, and generally their effects decrease with increasing particle size. In addition to silver nanoparticles, other shapes of silver nanomaterials, such as silver nanowires, silver nanorods, and silver nanohorns, also have antimicrobial effects, but have different antibacterial effects.

  In addition, in the clinical treatment of urology, orthopedics, oral surgery, dermatology and burns and scalds, nanosilver can inhibit the growth of various pathogenic bacteria. Many trauma dressings, medical device coatings and masks contain nanosilver .

  Molybdenum oxide nanomaterials

  The application research of molybdenum oxide nanomaterials in biomedicine is currently less. With the development of nano-medical science, some new functions of nano-molybdenum oxide have been gradually explored, especially in the application of biomedical fields, showing broad prospects. For example, molybdenum oxide nanodisks with specific surface morphology can be well used for antibacterial applications; two-dimensional layered molybdenum oxide nanoplates have a plasmon resonance effect and can absorb near-infrared light, making it suitable for photoacoustic diagnosis and treatment, tumor Photothermal removal and other biomedical applications are widely used; molybdenum trioxide nano-hollow spheres have great application potential in the load and transfer of poorly soluble drugs; 2nm-sized molybdenum trioxide nanoparticles can be used as bioenzyme catalysts. Electron transfer achieves sulfite oxidase activity.

  Other metal nanomaterials

  Gold, copper, zinc oxide, titanium dioxide and other nanoparticles all have antibacterial and antiviral activity. Heavy metals such as silver, copper, lead, mercury and other salts can react with thiol groups in proteins, or replace metal ions in enzymes, inactivating most enzymes. Therefore, heavy metal ions have a broad spectrum of antibacterial and antiviral activities.

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