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Application of Nanotechnology in Precision Medicine

Edit: Ccdanni 2020-02-02 Mobile

  When nanotechnology entered the age of science and technology, the most frequent words we have heard, its application fields are very wide, including medicine, pharmacy, chemical and biological detection, manufacturing, optics, and national defense. The application prospect of nanotechnology is very broad. Authoritative organizations in the United States predict that the future application of nanotechnology will far exceed the computer industry.

  The application of nanotechnology in modern life far exceeds our phenomenon. From dustproof clothing and waterproof clothing to integrated circuits to sterile tableware and sterile food, nanotechnology is infiltrating all aspects of people's lives, and this technology is in the medical field The application has brought new hope to the majority of patients. Nano-drug carriers, nano-biosensors and imaging technologies, and miniature intelligent medical devices play an important role in the diagnosis, treatment and health care of diseases.

  

  Precision medicine is the hottest concept in recent years. From diagnosis, treatment to prognosis, all aspects of medical care are looking for suitable ways to achieve precision medicine. Specifically in the process of drug development, precision therapy is not only reflected in the precise guidance of targeted drugs, but also the precise delivery methods brought by new biological agents. Now, nano-medicines with nano-materials as carriers are becoming a new favorite in the pharmaceutical field, affecting the original drug development model.

  Gold nanoparticles (GNPs)

  Can both carry medicine and treat

  Nanocarriers have the ability to improve tumor tissue penetration and retention rate effects (EPR). In addition, nanomedicine also has the following advantages: loading multiple drugs to play a combined therapeutic role in drugs; targeted transportation of specific drugs to tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment; simultaneous visualization of tumor treatment effects based on new imaging technologies; extension of drug circulation time; control of drugs Release; and optimizing treatment options to improve patient compliance.

  It is worth mentioning that many widely used traditional chemotherapy drugs (such as taxane and doxorubicin) have strong side effects and cause a variety of tumors to develop drug-resistant mutations, which brings tumor treatment new challenge. Many existing studies have shown that nanomedicine has the potential to overcome the above problems.

  One particularly active area of nanomedical research is the design of functionalized gold nanoparticles as multipurpose agents for biomedical imaging and drug delivery. Nanogold is known for its strong optical activity in the visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths and is actively studying contrast agents in optical imaging modes. In particular, the NIR spectrum between 750 and 1300 nm provides a "biological window" for optical absorption through tissues because hemoglobin, bio-pigment, and water attenuate the remaining wavelengths.

  The new wave of research into gold nanoparticles is due in part to new advances in scalable synthesis of anisotropic gold particles. For example, gold nanorods (GNRs) that are much shorter than 100nm in length can now be prepared, and their highly efficient NIR (visible to near-infrared) absorptivity can greatly increase the range of medical optical effectiveness modes, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) ) And photoacoustic tomography (PAT).

  However, gold nanoparticles are not just passive imaging agents and carriers: most of the photons they absorb are converted into heat, which produces a strong photothermal effect. With high gold nanoparticle concentration and high laser power, these photothermal effects can produce a milder form of high temperature with lower power irradiation, leading to the ablation of nearby cells and tissues, enhancing the treatment effect in more subtle ways. These effects have inspired new concepts in nanomedicine, in which photothermal effects combined with diagnostic imaging or drugs have led to new combinations of therapies.

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