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New clothing materials-nanomaterials

Edit: Ccdanni 2020-02-01 Mobile

  A nanometer is a unit of measurement of length. One nanometer is one billionth of a meter. Nano particles generally refer to particles with a particle size between 0.1 and 100 mm. Nanoparticles show special properties in many aspects such as optical properties, catalytic properties, chemical reactivity, magnetism, melting point, vapor pressure, phase transition temperature, superconductivity, etc., making them important value in the development and production of new functional clothing materials.

  At present, nano-functional materials and nano-technology have become hotspots in various countries around the world. Nano-technology has penetrated into all areas of human life and production, making many traditional products improved. At present, nanotechnology has been applied to the research and development and production of functional clothing materials such as anti-ultraviolet, anti-magnetic radiation, far infrared, antibacterial and odor suppression, anti-aging, and water and oil repellent.

  

  01 Application of Nanotechnology in Textiles

  The application of nanotechnology to develop functional textiles is mainly achieved through the following three ways:

  (1) Ultra-fine fiber, the application of nanotechnology to make the fiber reach the nano level, to meet the needs of special applications.

  (2) Modification of traditional materials using nanomaterials.

  For example, the solution blending in the wet spinning method is to dissolve the polymer in an appropriate solvent, and then add the nano-material particles into it, stir it sufficiently and then perform the polymerization reaction, and then perform the spinning process. In melt spinning, nanoparticles are dispersed uniformly in a molten polymer to prepare functional fibers.

  (3) Nano-finishing the fiber or fabric to make it functional.

  The main methods of nano-finishing are: adding nanoparticles as a solid substance directly to the fabric finishing agent to uniformly disperse the nanoparticles in the fabric; mixing the nano-emulsion of micro-particles and the fabric finishing agent uniformly, and passing the fabric This finishing liquid containing nano particles; a finishing agent containing nano materials is applied to the surface of the fabric in the presence of a certain binder to form a functional coating, thereby improving the wearability of the fabric.

  No matter which one of the above methods is adopted, the characteristics of the original textiles or wearing materials can be changed, and new functions can be added. Some newly developed products have entered the daily consumption field, such as water-repellent cashmere trench coats, antifouling ties and trousers, Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory underwear, UV-blocking jacket, etc.

  02 Nanotechnology functional clothing materials

  (1) UV-proof material

  The ultraviolet rays that are harmful to the human body by solar energy are mainly in the 300 ~ 400mm band. Studies have shown that nano-TiO₂, ZnO, SiO₂, Al2O3, Fe2O3, and nano-mica all have the characteristics of absorbing ultraviolet in this band. If a small amount of nanoparticles is added to the chemical fiber, ultraviolet absorption will occur, which can effectively protect the human body from ultraviolet damage.

  (2) Antistatic materials

  Chemical fiber clothing and carpets have a discharge effect due to electrostatic friction, and at the same time, they easily absorb dust, which brings a lot of inconvenience to users. Nanoparticles provide a new way to solve the electrostatic problem of chemical fiber products. A small amount of nanoparticle is added to the chemical fiber products, such as 0.1% -0.5% nanometer TiO₂, CR₂O3, ZnO, Fe2O3 and other semiconductor powders. Into the resin, it will produce good electrostatic shielding performance and greatly reduce the electrostatic effect.

  (3) Anti-electromagnetic radiation material

  The popularity of electronic products makes electromagnetic radiation a huge threat to human health. Some nano-particles such as nano-iron oxide and nano-nickel oxide can strongly absorb electromagnetic radiation, thereby protecting the human body.

  (4) Far-infrared materials

  The infrared rays released by the human body are roughly in the mid-infrared band of 4 to 16. If the infrared in this band is not shielded on the battlefield, it will be easily detected by the very sensitive mid-infrared detectors, especially at night when human safety will be Being threatened, it is necessary to develop clothes that shield the human body from infrared rays.

  Some nano-particles such as nano-AI2O3, TiO₂, SiO₂ and Fe2O3 composite powders are combined with polymer fibers and have strong absorption properties in the mid-infrared band. Another important feature is that some nanoparticles, such as nano-zirconia, can effectively absorb external energy and radiate far-infrared rays that are the same as human infrared rays. Such far-infrared rays act on the human body, which results in the resonance activation of human cells. Bacteriostatic, promoting blood circulation, strengthening immunity and other health care functions.

  (5) Antibacterial and deodorant materials

  Some metal particles, such as silver, copper, iron, etc., can release a trace amount of metal ions and combine with negatively charged bacterial protein to deform or precipitate bacteria, thereby achieving a bactericidal effect. Nano zinc oxide, copper oxide, etc. not only have a good antibacterial and deodorizing function, but also have a good ultraviolet shielding effect.

  (6) Anti-aging materials

  Some chemical fibers are not resistant to sunlight, because organic polymer materials will undergo molecular chain degradation under the irradiation of ultraviolet rays, resulting in a large number of free radicals, which will affect the color and strength of fibers and textiles. Nano titanium dioxide particles are a kind of Stable ultraviolet absorber, evenly dispersing it in polymer materials, and using its absorption effect on ultraviolet rays, can prevent the degradation of molecular chains, so as to achieve the effect of preventing sunlight and aging.

  (7) Water and oil repellent materials

  Some special processing is performed on the surface of the material to make the material have special functions. The textile materials (cotton, linen, silk, wool, velvet, blended, chemical fiber, etc.) treated by this technology are not only waterproof and oil-proof, but also ink and juice. Clothes made with this fiber can be washed with clean water only, eliminating the need for traditional detergents.

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